Examination: written and oral
Lecturers: Zoltán S. Varga, dr. (emeritus professor), Mihály Földvári, dr. (senior lecturer)
Scope of the lectures: A review of the major trends and steps of the biological evolution. Principles and methods of the phylogenetics and phylogenetic systematics. Principles and methods of the phylogenetic biogeography and molecular phylogeography.
Description of the courses: Major trends and steps of the biological evolution: mega- and macro-taxonomy of biota. Molecular organisation and evolution of Archaea and Bacteria. Origins of the eukaryotic organisation and of the sex. Life cycles in eukaryotic Protista. The origins and major trends of multicellularity and organisation („Bauplan”) with special respect on Animalia. Genome evolution in Animalia: duplications and modular organisation, evolution of „Hox”-genes in connection with the evolution of segmantation.
Principles of evolutionary and phylogenetic systematics: basic concepts. Biological species as concept, category and taxon. Phylogenetic analysis of character states: plesiomorphy and apomorphy, synapomorphy and homoplasy. Concepts of monophyly, poliphyly and paraphyly. Principle of Maximum Parsimony. Data matrices and construction of phylogenetic trees. Principles and methods of phylogenetic biogeography, constructions of area-dendrograms and –cladograms. The combination of molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic methods: molecular biogeography and phylogeography. Phylogeographic case studies: speciation, paleo-ecology and area-evolution during the Quaternary period.
Wiley EO. 1981. Phylogenetics: Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics, Wiley and Sons, New York.
Hewitt GM. 2000. The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature 405: 907-913.
Avise JC. & Hamrick JL. 1996. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman and Hall, New York - London, pp. 512.
Avise JC. 1999. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species, Harward U. P., Cambridge, M.