Hours/week (lecture+seminar+practical): 2+1+0
Pre-requirement(s): basic Zoology (Anatomy, Embryology and Systematics, B.Sc. level)
Course coordinator: Professor Dr. Zoltán S. Varga (D.Sc.), Dr. Mihály Földvári (Ph.D.)
Aims of the course (partial/complete skills and competencies): The origin and diversification of the Animal Kingdom will be treated based on recent results of molecular phylogenetic and ontogenetic surveys. Methods and case studies of phylogenetic analysis and systematisation will be presented during the seminars.
Topics: The diversification of Eukaryota and the origins of multicellularity. Evolution of sexual life cycles. Evolution of multicellularity: intercellular communication and intercellular proteins. Evolution and levels of histological organisation, origin of Eumetazoa. Segmentation, gastrulation and the origins of diploblastic and triploblastic organisation. Larval forms of basal Metazoa as evidences of phylogeny. The principle of ontogenetic recapitulation and the “evo-devo” approach. The origin and genomic basis of cranio-caudal polarity, bilateral symmetry and segmentation. The evolution of Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. The phylogeny and evolutionary diversification of Arthropoda with special respect on the adaptive radiation of major insect orders. Co-evolution of vascular plants and insects. The phylogeny of Deuterostomia. Origin of Chordata and phylogenetic lines of Vertebrata. Origin of Tetrapoda and Amniota. The radiation of Archosauria and Aves. The radiation of Therapsida and the recent molecular systematics of mammals. The evolution of Primates and the hominisation. Principles and methods of phylogenetic systematics illustrated on morphological and molecular case studies. Algorhytms of tree construction and different types of phylogenetic trees (use of important free softwares). Methods of construction of molecular phylogenetic trees, the principles and practice of “barcoding”.
Ridley, M. 2004. Evolution. 2.ed. Oxford UP. Oxford-New York-Tokyo.
Nielsen, C. 1996. Animal Evolution. Interrelationships of Living Phyla. Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York-Tokyo.
Albert, V. 2006. Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics. Oxford University Press.
Minelli, A. 2009. Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford UP.
Skelton, P., Smith, A. & Monks, N. 2002. Cladistics. Cambridge U.P.
Halanych, K.M. 2004. The New View of Animal Phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35: 229-256
Dunn, C.W., Hejnol, A. Matus, D.Q. et al. & Giribet, G. 2008. Broad phylogenetic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452: 745-750.
Bourlat, S.J., Nielsen, C., Economou, A.D. & Telford, M.J. 2008. Testing the new animal phylogeny: A phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 23-31.
BEAST - Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees
Felsenstein: PHYLIP Phylogenetic inference package
Swofford: PAUP Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods)
TREEFINDER - Fast ML tree reconstruction, bootstrap analysis, model selection, hypothesis testing, tree calibration, tree manipulation and visualization, computation of sitewise rates, sequence simulation, many models of evolution (DNA, protein, rRNA, mixed protein, user-definable), GUI and scripting language, etc.