Examination: oral and written
Lecturer: István Rácz, dr. (associate professor)
The aim of the education: To recognise the flora and the development of the vegetation and the fauna and faunation, his combination and the more important necessities influencing the spreading of the races and the vegetation belts of our Earth, flora and his fauna realms.
The syllabus of the subject: Brief history and contemporaneous trends in Biogeography. Descriptive, comparative, systematic and phylogenetic aspects; causality in Biogeography; Ecological and Evolutionary Biogeography. Biomes, zones and landscapes. Individual biogeographic units and repetitive patterns. The concept of the area. Methods of biogeographical mapping, biogeographical data banks. Size, structure and dynamics of the area. History of the area, relict taxa, types of relicts. Areas of endemism. The areographic method. Geographical area types; "faunal elements" and faunal types. Quantitative methods of biogeographical analysis: faunal similarity and ordination methods. The phylogenetic method in the Biogeography. The Biogeography of islands, equilibrium models: colonisation, extinction and evolution on islands.
The geographical history of the Biosphere: cycles and trends. Faunal types and mass extinctions. Plate tectonics and phylogenetic explanation of vicariant patterns. The late Tertiary and Quaternary climatic changes and faunal migrations. Glacial refugia and disjunctions. The antagonistic dynamics of arboreal and non-arboreal biomes. The recent macro-structure of the Biosphere: zonobiomes and orobiomes. Biogeographical types of orobiomes. The oreo-tundral and oreo-eremic faunal connections. Late-glacial and post-glacial faunal migrations and extinctions. Worldwide threatened species: Biogeography and Nature Conservation. ómok kapcsolatai.
Basic regional Biogeography: review of the most important regional biogeographical systems. Biogeography of the Oceans and Seas. Biogeography of continental realms and regions: Antarctic, Australian, Oceanian, Neotropical, Afro-tropical, Indo-Malaysian and Holarctic realms. Biogeography of Central Europe and Carpathian Basin.
Hengeveld R. 1990. Dynamic Biogeography. Cambridge U.P.
Avise JC. 1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, New York-London.
Avise JC. 2000. Phylogeography. The History and Formation of Species. Harward U.P., Cambridge, Mass.
Myers AA. & Giller P.S. 1988. Analytical Biogeography. Chapman and Hall, New York-London.
Morain SA. 1984. Systematic and Regional Biogeography. Van Nostrand, New York.
Brown JH. & Gibson AC. 1983. Biogeography. Mosby, Toronto-London.
Hengeveld R. 1992. Dynamic Biogeography. Cambridge U. P. New York.
MacArthur RH. 1972. Geographical Ecology. Harper and Row. New York.
Morain SA. 1984. Systematic and Regional Biogeography. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Myers AA. & Giller PS. 1988. Analytical Biogeography: an Integrated Approach to the Study of Animal and Plant Distribution. Chapman and Hall, London.